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Carman: a driver of a horse-drawn delivery vehicle, or a horse-drawn tram driver.
Carnifex: a butcher.
Carpentarius: a carpenter.
Cart Wheeler: a maker of cart wheels.
Carter: driver of a horse-drawn vehicle used for transporting goods.
Cartman: an alternative job title for a carter.
Cartographer: a mapmaker.
Cartomancer: a fortune teller.
Cartwright: a producer carts and wagons, or a person who repaired them.
Case Hardener: a person who heat treated steel to harden its surface.
Cashmarie: a fish seller.
Caster: a person who pours slip into moulds in the pottery industry, or another name for a Castorer.
Castorer: maker of small receptacles with pierced covers used for sprinkling sugar, salt, pepper, spices.
Castrator: a Gelder who castrated farm animals.
Catagman: a tenant who leased a cottage and plot of land from the landowner, where they grew their own produce and often kept a small amount of livestock.
Cattle Jobber: a cattle trader.
Cattleman: US term for a hired hand who worked with cattle.
Caulker: used tar together with oakum hemp fibre (from old ropes) to fill cracks in wooden ships, casks, windows or seams to make them watertight.
Causewaymaker: built roads (causeways) using stone setts known as cobblestones.
Ceapman: any travelling trader, or someone who sold silk, wool and cotton to home workers.
Ceiler: worked in the construction industry, specialised in installing ceilings.
Cellarer: in charge of a wine cellar.
Cellarman: worked in public houses, inns or warehouses, responsible for alcoholic beverages such as ale, beer and spirits.
Copyright: Jane Hewitt. This dictionary is authorised for use on www.familyresearcher.co.uk only.
Cemmer Hand: worked in the textile industry, responsible for combing yarn before it was woven.
Ceramist: - worked in the pottery industry, using a potter's wheel.
Chaff Cutter: responsible for cutting straw stalks.
Chafferer: a merchant who sold chaff.
Chair Bodger: a travelling craftsman who repaired chairs, or a producer of wooden chair parts.
Chaise Driver: the driver of a two wheeled carriage called a chaise.
Chaisemaker: made or assembled carts and carriages.
Chaloner: made blankets or bed coverings, or dealt in the fabric Shalloon. The lightweight fabric was often used to line coats.
This dictionary is my own work, and copyright Jane Hewitt. I sometimes find unauthorised (i.e. stolen) copies of my website content appearing on other people's websites. If you should read a group of identical glossary definitions elsewhere on the web, consider whether such sites are reputable or not.
Winston Churchill was the greatest war leader Britain ever had. In 1940, the nation rallied behind him in an extraordinary fashion. But thereafter, argues Max Hastings, there was a deep divide between what Churchill wanted from the British people and their army, and what they were capable of delivering. Himself a hero, he expected others to show themselves heroes also, and was often disappointed.
It is little understood how low his popularity fell in 1942, amid an unbroken succession of battlefield defeats. Some of his closest colleagues joined a clamour for him to abandon his role directing the war machine. Hastings paints a wonderfully vivid image of the Prime Minister in triumph and tragedy. He describes the ‘second Dunkirk’ in 1940, when Churchill’s impulsiveness threatened to lose Britain almost as many troops in north-west France as had been saved from the beaches; his wooing of the Americans, and struggles with the Russians. British wartime unity was increasingly tarnished by workers’ unrest, with many strikes in mines and key industries.
By looking at Churchill from the outside in, through the eyes of British soldiers, civilians and newspapers – and also those of Russians and Americans – Hastings provides new perspectives on the greatest Englishman. He condemns as folly Churchill’s attempt to promote mass uprisings in occupied Europe, and details ‘Unthinkable’ – his amazing 1945 plan for an Allied offensive against the Russians to liberate Poland. Here is an intimate and affectionate portrait of Churchill as Britain’s saviour, but also an unsparing examination of the wartime nation which he led and the performance of its armed forces.